ToR Rooftop Gardening: Finding potential scopes to socialize green practices of urban dwellers
Why Rooftop Gardening in the city?
Dhaka is one of the fastest growing megacities and one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Due to rapid declines in green areas of Dhaka city, 80% of GHG emissions are caused by the cities. Dhaka like many other big cities in the developing world are facing climate change impacts due to lack of proper planning and its organic growth. A study by satellite imaging shows a grim picture of decreasing greenery in Dhaka city. In the study, it is found that about 20% vegetation cover that was present in 1989 has gradually decreased to 15.5 and 7.3% in the year 2002 and 2010, respectively. They also found vegetation in the Dhaka metropolitan area is only 1.87%.
Plantation especially application of roof gardens can mitigate the effect of both direct and diffuse solar radiation to a large extent and can clean the heavily polluted urban centres. One study shows that roof gardens can reduce the indoor air temperature 6.8°C from outdoor during the hottest summer period when the outdoor temperature is recorded 39.72°C. Therefore, roof gardens can actually save electricity and impact of climate change by reducing the cooling demand for comfort. On the other hand rooftop gardening can be an effective method in ensuring food supply and satisfying nutritional needs of the inhabitants. It’s found in a research that 60% space of total Dhaka city occupied with bare roof with no other extensive usage.
Vegetated roofs offer an extensive range of environmental benefits that are widely accepted across the literature:
Decreased surface water runoff
Decreased heating and cooling demands for the building
Increased local biodiversity
Increased durability and lifespan of the roof
Improved local air quality
Mitigation of the Urban Heat Island effect.
Following the above, gardening on rooftops in ever-increasingly dense and sprawling city like Dhaka city is an original way to take back unused and bare spaces like rooftops, entrance and balconies and to transform them into livable spaces that are lush, productive and purifying. In addition to embellishing the urban landscape with food-producing gardens at the tops of buildings and producing fresh food, these new spaces for the community enable us to reduce the ecological footprint of the houses and institutions of which we are an integral part. Therefore, in the current context of environmental degradation, over-consumption and urban behavioral culture, taking care of ourselves and our environment enables us to take a step down the path to healthy cities and communities. Furthermore, increasing practice of urban dwellers will create opportunity of the nursery owners as well as scoping job/livelihood.
Rooftop gardening means taking up an inspiring, ecological and productive activity, and developing new links with the food chain, the seasons, the environment and the community. This utopian’s vision is to turn the city into an ecological garden and its inhabitants into ecological activist.
It is generally accepted that there are two main types of green roof which are described by Kibert (2008) as:
Extensive: Extensive landscaped roofs are defined as low maintenance, drought-tolerant, self-seeding vegetated roof covers that incorporate colorful sedums, grasses, mosses, and meadow flowers that require little or no irrigation, fertilization, or maintenance… Extensive systems can be placed on low-slope and pitched roofs with up to a 40% slope.
Intensive: If there is adequate load-bearing capacity, it is possible to create actual roof gardens on many buildings. This type of eco-roof system may include lawns, meadows, bushes, trees, ponds, and terraced surfaces. Intensive systems are far more complex and heavy than extensive eco-roof systems and hence require far more maintenance.”
Some authors also describe a third type of green roof as ‘simple intensive’ which usually comprise grasses, herbaceous plants and shrubs. Simple intensive green roofs can be constructed using varying depths of substrate, thus combining elements of extensive and intensive roofs (Newton, Gedge et al. 2007).
Extensive green roofs are the most popularly deployed forms of green roofs as they are generally light weight and low cost.
Why take up urban agriculture?
The daily pleasures of gardening are simple, inexpensive and profoundly satisfying: eating a head of lettuce or green chili or any vegetable curry that serve which is cultivated with care among family members/social friends, taking in the morning perfume of a flower clinging to the banister of a balcony, biting into a strawberry/grapes warmed by the sun. Urban agriculture is a veritable way of life and enables the population, collectively or individually, to take pleasure in new, green spaces that meet its needs for relaxation and leisure.
Far from a marginal expression or an anachronism doomed to disappear, urban agriculture is destined to play an ever greater role in feeding city dwellers. It currently feeds 700 million people, a fourth of the world’s urban population (FAO, 2005). It provides an answer to food insecurity and an avenue for cultural expression and citizen involvement. It also enables people get a taste of the pure enchantment of growing food for themselves and for the community. In this time of climatic changes and the multiple, harmful consequences of urban living on health and the environment, we need to rethink the way we live. In light of this, urban gardening is a powerful agent for change. Overall objective The overall objective of the action research to develop a comprehensive model of roof top garden with appropriate plant species with proper management practices, so that it could supply some products to the kitchen and a business opportunity for the plant nursery is increased. Eventually microclimate of the roof has been improved through reducing heat radiation in the Dhaka north city. Specific objectives:
To develop a comprehensive model of roof top gardening which will be suited for city dwellers like Dhaka city;
To identify and recommend the suitable plant species including kitchen plant, flower and other ornamental plants for roof top gardening;
To identify and recommend the appropriate planting materials (soil) so that it does not do any harm to the roof;
To identify and recommend the intercultural operations and management practices to be followed for the roof top garden;
To identify and describe ways and means to involve private sector to involve in the roof top gardening for its sustainability, scale up and extension;
To measure data that may contribute in micro-weather controlling of an area (like reduce heat island, air pollution and moisture control etc.) concerning urban climate change;
To identify and describe ways and means to make the roof top gardening profitable to the city gardener;
Define technologies of roof top gardening and costing;
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Scope of the study More specifically the action research will:
Set number of demonstrations in different location in the Dhaka North City Corporation periphery;
Review government/city corporation strategy and policy regarding roof top gardening;
Examine the suitable plant species including kitchen plant, flower and other ornamental plants for roof top garden;
Examine the appropriate planting materials (soil) and methods so that it does not do any harm to the roof;
Examine intercultural operations and management practices to be followed for the roof top garden;
Involvement private sector in the roof top gardening for its sustainability, scale up and extension;
Develop a standard model of roof top garden;
Measure micro-weather components that may contribute in urban climate change concerning large scale urban practices;
Review existing roof top gardening practices;
Develop recommendations for private sector engagement and market linkage;
Buy-back arrangement for roof top garden products;
The study shall entail the following specific tasks:
The consultant will review the literature and make visit any existing practice within Dhaka city.
The Consultant will arrange at least three to five roofs within the Dhaka North City Corporation to demonstrate roof top garden.
Consultant will communicate with the renounced commercial plant nurseries to collect the seedlings and active participation of these nurseries in the roof top garden establishment process.
The consultant will arrange all the materials and technologies to demonstrate the roof top garden.
The consultant will consult with the Horticultural, Botany and Soil science experts to explore the appropriate regarding technology.
The Consultant will define the soil, management practices and appropriate plant species.
The consultant will produce an ideal landscape of the roof for garden.
The consultant will produce a report on the action research of the roof top garden.
Consultant will produce a guideline/gardener manual including cost estimation.
Consultant will share his action research findings in the national level workshop.
Consultant will coordinate the internal and external researchers and media person for knowledge sharing and data collection as their requirement.
Deliverables The consultant shall produce the following:
A comprehensive model on roof top gardening considering above scopes;
Three to five complete demonstration plots in different location in the Dhaka North City corporation area;
Compilation of data and information, study reports.
A landscape of the roof top gardens.
A gardener manual of roof top garden.
(Optional) Tender documents with bid specifications, bills of quantities, and basic procurement requirements.
(Regarding documentation process both the photography and video will be given preference for future demonstration and mobilization) Qualification / competency of consultant Team shall include following specialized / qualified persons:-
At least consider Agriculturist/Botanist/Horticulture/Civil/Architect/Planner /Environment scientist in the action research team with related experience;
It’ll be highly appreciated the team/individual should consider expertise of different categories to contribute in the scientific data analysis and also in development of the roof top gardening model;
Recent research experience on investigate climate change issues relating to environmental contamination and remediation;
The team/individual should have good relation with city authority and develop a realistic model to improvise to get into city policy action and helps for extension of the action research findings into city dweller’s practices;
The team/individual should have ability to run the initiative through their own interest at least one to two years;
Consultancy period This consultancy should require no more than 08 Months to complete from the start of assignment. Assignment should be completed by March 30th, 2016. Guidelines for Proposals Interested individuals Consultant/Organization are expected to submit a proposal which should briefly capture the following. Technical Proposal:
Profile of firm/ organization/ individual(s)
Updated CV of team members with references
Cover letter stating availability for assignment
Sample of any relevant previous work done
Understanding of study and focus
Proposed methodology (The consultant should propose an action plan based on the defined methodology and identify a team of individuals with proven track records, preferably in research in agricultural production/technology development and transfer etc)
Work plan (The proposal should include a schedule of time allocated to each team member by task. Identifying timeline and milestones in preparing and completing deliverables, including overall study project management.
Details Budget including VAT & TAX (The consultant shall provide fixed price quotations, for this assignment meet the requirements of this ToR. )
Interested Individual consultant/ Organization is expected to submit TECHNICAL PROPOSAL ( As per above stated types) email@example.com & FINANCIAL PROPOSAL (As per above stated types) firstname.lastname@example.org Or to the following address: Human Resources Department, Islamic Relief Bangladesh, House no. 10, Road no. 10, Block-K, Baridhara, and Dhaka 1212 on or July 5, 2015. It is strictly advised not to send any other document unless specified above. Violation of the clause will result into disqualification from the bid participation. Please mention only the ` Proposal onRooftop Gardening ‘as the subject of email or top of the sealed separated (each for Technical proposal & Financial Proposal) envelope.